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Appendix II. Module 2. Development of Core Model and Software Interface
1. Glossary of Terms
Stage : A Stage name can be assigned to any Node in the Model Graph and is used to group and summarise calculated emissions. It is intended to enable rapid querying of emissions across different locations within an agricultural sector, e.g. livestock housing and fields.
Cost-Step : An incremental decrease in emissions following the step-wise implementation of a single Measure.
Cost-curve : An ideal cost-curve is a collection of Cost-Steps, implemented in order of increasing marginal cost.
Measure Efficiency : The percentage reduction in ammonia emissions following implementation of a Measure.
Measure Applicability : The percentage of the agricultural system across which a Measure could potentially be put into practice.
Measure Implementation : The percentage of the agricultural system across which a Measure has been put into practice.
Model Engine : The Model Engine is the software that carries out the calculation of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) losses and cost-curves for potential mitigation measures.
Model Graph : The Model Graph is the Node and Link tree structure that represents TAN Flow in one or more agricultural sectors.
Node : A Node is part of a Model Graph and represents a physical location in an agricultural sector, such as livestock housing or a field, at which TAN in manure is accumulated, potentially moved into TAN sinks, and passed forward to other Nodes via Links in the Model Graph.
Link : A Link is part of a Model Graph that represents a path for the transfer of TAN between physical locations or Nodes in an agricultural sector, or a partitioning of manure handling practices.
2. NARSES Model Engine
The National Ammonia Reduction Strategy Evaluation System (NARSES) Model Engine implements the TAN Flow concept for the calculation of TAN losses and derivation of cost-curves for potential mitigation measures. The method of calculation is similar to that used by the Model for the Assessment of Regional Ammonia Cost Curves for Abatement Strategies (MARACCAS; Cowell and ApSimon, 1998) but has been considerably expanded to provide for different types of mitigation measures and to allow site-specific calculations of applicability and efficiency by editable formulae that reference a national agricultural and environmental database. Most significantly, the Model Engine includes an interactive graphical model designer that allows for easy visual design and editing of the description of the agricultural system. This provides for rapid exploration of the potential of new measure types and the impact of changes of measure costs on the cost-curve. The calculations of the Model Engine are inherently dimensionless, and can be made at any scale for which data can be provided. The current NARSES System provides data at a range of spatial scales from individual 10 by 10 km2 squares to regions and countries. Results can be disaggregated to agricultural sectors (e.g. dairy or poultry) and stages (e.g. housing or storage).
The NARSES Model Engine was developed in Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0TM as an ActiveX Dynamic Link Library (DLL). The DLL exposes procedures and properties to the software developer for automated control and includes a simple script interface for editing and running macros. The DLL also has built in a number of graphical user interfaces for interactive design of the NARSES Model Graph, and the calculation and querying of cost-curves (see Section 3). The Model Engine can be used as a stand-alone component or as part of the NARSES System that includes a Scenario Manager, Results Manager and Database for UK policy development.
2.1. TAN Flow Concept
The TAN Flow concept is explained in section 3 of the CSG15 and in more detail in Appendix III of the first annual report.
The TAN Flow system is effected by the implementation of abatement Measures. Where a Measure is implemented, it reduces the volatilisation rate in proportion to the efficiency of the measure. In addition, there may be external criteria that determine that a Measure may only be appropriate in a proportion of instances of that system. The applicability of a Measure defines the maximum possible rate of actual implementation.
The agricultural system is typically divided into a number of recognisable sectors, representing poultry, dairy, beef, sheep, pigs and fertiliser inputs. Each sector is divided into a number of stages, representing excreta production, housing, grazing, manure storage and spreading (Figure 1).
2.2. Structure of a NARSES Graph
The NARSES Model Engine explicitly implements the TAN Flow concept by a Node and Link tree diagram of the transfer of TAN between sites at which it is accumulated or lost to varied sinks, including gaseous emission and immobilisation.
A Node is conceptualised as a physical location in an agricultural system, such as livestock housing or a field. Links represent the physical transfer of material between locations and can be used to represent the division of material between different storage, treatment and spreading processes. A Model Graph is constructed by the linking of Nodes. TAN input to the system at the Nodes at the top of the tree structure, normally representing excreta by livestock, is progressively processed and the remaining material passed forward through the subsequent (child) Nodes. The Model Graph is directed and a-cyclic. Separate tree diagrams can be constructed for the different sectors of an agricultural system.
2.2.1. Nodes
A Node receives, processes and passes forward three layers of data for each month of the year: a quantity of TAN; a number of animals associated with the TAN; and the volume occupied by the material (Figure 2). The animal number and volume are used to calculate the costs of Measure implementation at a site. Where a Node receives inputs from more than one link, the inputs are summed before processing. The TAN, animal count and volume of material remaining after processing are passed forward to child Nodes in proportion to their Link values (Section 2.2.2).
The processing that occurs depends on the Node type. There are currently seven distinct Node types that make up a toolkit from which many different agricultural systems can be represented.
2.2.1.1. Source Node
A Source Node represents a source of TAN in excreta at the head of the TAN Flow model. For each month, the Source Node requires input data on the quantity of TAN produced (kg N), the number of animals responsible, and the volume (m3 or t) of excreta.
2.2.1.2. Marker Node
A Marker Node accumulates monthly inputs of TAN, animals and volume from parent Nodes and passes the inputs forward without further processing. The purpose of a Marker Node is to enable multiple sources of TAN to be similarly treated without having to duplicate large sections of the Model Graph. The repeated expansion and contraction of the Model Graph about these accumulation Nodes gives rise to the description of the graph as a macram model rather than an ever-expanding tree.
2.2.1.3. Emission Node
An Emission Node accumulates monthly inputs of TAN, animals and volume from parent Nodes. A percentage of the TAN is lost as ammonia [other gaseous emissions are treated differently] and the remainder is passed forward to child Nodes. The percentage loss can be month specific and calculated from the formula using items in the NARSES Database. This might be used, for example, to represent temperature-dependent emission rates. Losses of TAN can be reduced by the implementation of a Measure. Animal numbers and volume remain unaffected.
2.2.1.4. Constraint Node
A Constraint Node accumulates monthly inputs of TAN, animals and volume from parent Nodes and redistributes them between months before passing the result forward to Child Nodes. All inputs are summed (across the entire year) and then redistributed between months in proportion to monthly weights. The purpose of the Constraint Node is to implement restrictions on time of activities. For example, excreta may be generated every month at a Source Node, but it is passed forward via a Constraint Node to give realistic spreading windows.
2.2.1.5. Immobilisation Node
An Immobilisation Node accumulates monthly inputs of TAN, animals and volume from Parent Nodes. A percentage of the TAN content is then removed from the system to represent the immobilisation of nitrogen. The remainder is passed forward to child Nodes. Animal numbers and volume remain unaffected.
2.2.1.6. Multiplier Node
A Multiplier Node accumulates monthly inputs of TAN, animals and volume from Parent Nodes. The animal count and volume are then scaled by a percentage. The purpose of the Multiplier Node is to represent processes that bulk-up the quantity of handled material, and hence increase costs of measure implementation. Processes include the addition of straw and the dilution of slurry with rainwater. The quantity of TAN is unaffected by the process, so is effectively diluted.
2.2.1.7. Export Node
An Export Node accumulates monthly inputs of TAN, animals and volume from Parent Nodes. A percentage of each is permanently removed from the agricultural system. The Export Node can be used to represent out-sector transfers such as incineration of poultry litter. The remainder is passed forward to child Nodes.
2.2.2. Links
A Link connects two Nodes and defines the direction of TAN Flow. Where two or more Links descend from a Node, the monthly TAN, animal and volume output from the Node are distributed between the child Nodes in proportion to the Link weights. The transfer across a Link can be reduced by implementation of a Measure.
2.3. Measures
Measures are activities or capital investment that will either reduce emissions directly, or indirectly by changing the way in which manure is handled. Examples include the provision of covers for slurry stores and the incorporation of manures. A Measure is applicable to a single Node (Emission Measure) or Link (Redirection Measure) and has varied properties that affect its efficiency, applicability and cost of implementation.
2.3.1. Measure Group
There may be multiple candidate Measures for implementation at a Node or Link. Some will be mutually exclusive, for example, methods of slurry spreading and others compatible such as most housing Measures. Measures are assigned a Group number that identifies potential implementation conflict. Measures that are assigned to Group zero are compatible with all other measures. Measures that share the same non-zero Group are mutually exclusive. The outcome of exclusivity conflicts is dependent on the order of implementation.
2.3.2. Measure User Priority
When calculating a cost-curve, Measures are implemented in the order of decreasing cost-benefit ratio. In the unusual circumstance that two Measures share the same cost-benefit ratio, the user can elect to use an index of User Priority to resolve the conflict. Priority is assigned to the Measure with the higher index. More commonly, it is possible for Measures to be part implemented under Baseline conditions at the same Node or Link. In these instances, it is not possible to use a cost-benefit ratio to determine the order of implementation. In this case, the user can elect to use an index of User Priority to resolve the conflict. The index of User Priority is only one of several options available, including prioritisation based on relative Measure applicability, efficiency, cost and potential.
2.3.3. Measure Cost Unit
The cost of Measure implementation is calculated from a rate per animal place or a rate per unit volume of material (m3 or t). For example, the purchase of a cover for a slurry store would be costed at a rate per unit volume as the surface area of the store ought to be proportional to the volume of material handled. The cost of a new ventilation unit for a pig unit would be costed at a rate per animal place as it is expected that the cost would be proportional to the size of building which in turn is proportional to the number of animals.
2.3.4. Measure Cost
The cost of Measure implementation is calculated from a rate per animal place or a rate per unit volume of material (m3 or t). The cost is in Pounds Sterling.
2.3.5. Measure Applicability
The applicability of a Measure is the percentage of the agricultural system to which it potentially applies. For example, the use of slurry injection equipment might only be applicable to a maximum 10% of farms due to restrictions placed by soil depth and stone content.
2.3.6. Measure Implementation
The implementation of a Measure is the percentage of the potential Measure applicability that has already been implemented under Baseline conditions.
2.3.7. Measure Efficiency
The efficiency of a Measure is the percentage reduction in Node emissions or Link transfer resulting from 100% implementation across the whole of the agricultural system. Where applicability and implementation are not 100% or other measures have priority of implementation, an effective efficiency is calculated by the Model Engine at each step on the cost-curve.
2.3.8. Emission Measures
Emission Measures are applied to Emission Nodes and reduce percentage emissions in proportion to their net efficiency, as described above.
2.3.9. Redirection Measures
Redirection Measures are applied to Links and reduce the transfer of TAN, animal numbers and material volume across them in proportion to their net efficiency, as described above. The displaced material is distributed between the other Links descending from the same parent Node.
2.3.10. Measure Implementation
Where multiple Measures are implemented at a Node or Link, it is necessary to determine an integral net efficiency. The calculation depends on order of implementation and the extent to which Measures are mutually exclusive. The net efficiency of compatible measures is determined by chain multiplication of their respective efficiencies according to:
EMBED Equation.3 Equation (1)
where E is the net efficiency, and E1 to En are the efficiencies of the individual Measures expressed as proportions. For example, two measures that are both equally applicable to the whole agricultural system with efficiencies of 50% and 80% will result in a combined efficiency of 90%. In the simplest of situations where all measures are compatible, but are applicable to varying percentages of the agricultural system, the net efficiency is calculated by weighting the results of Equation (1) for each distinct unit of Measure overlap according to:
EMBED Equation.3 Equation (2)
where A1:n is the implementation overlap of Measures 1 to n, expressed as a proportion of the agricultural system. The calculation always assumes the maximum possible overlap of Measures.
Where measures are mutually exclusive Equation (2) is modified to take account of the order of implementation. For example, in Figure 3, Measures 1 and 2 are mutually exclusive. Measure 2 is applicable to a greater proportion of the agricultural system but the prior implementation of Measure 1 reduces the effective applicability from 50 to 20%. The net efficiency of the combined measures is calculated to be 40% from a weighted sum of the efficiencies where the weights are the effective applicability values.
2.4. Cost-curve Calculation
A cost-curve is defined as the relationship between emission abatement and marginal cost. The function is continuous and has a positive gradient, i.e. the marginal cost always increases with increasing emission reduction, thereby satisfying the law of diminishing returns. Cost-curve optimisation is a numerically intensive calculation that scales exponentially with the number of potential measures. The ideal or optimal cost-curve can be determined only by simulating all possible orders of Measure implementation, as the marginal cost is dependent on the Measures already implemented.
The NARSES Engine adopts a pragmatic approach in which the model iteratively selects and implements the Measure with the greatest ratio of benefit to cost at each cost-step. At each step, each Measure from the pool of currently unimplemented Measures is implemented separately and the cost-benefit of implementation calculated. The Measure with the greatest ratio of emission reduction to cost and is implemented. Under the traditional method of calculating a cost-curve, this Measure now has priority of implementation. Mutually exclusive Measures that are implemented at subsequent cost-steps will have their implementation reduced in proportion to the Measure overlap. It is important to note that implementation of a Measure can change the cost-benefit ratio of measures at subsequent cost-steps.
The NARSES Engine also provides functionality to override the optimisation process and carryout a Forced Implementation in which a list of measures is presented to the model. The list defines the order of implementation and need not be in order of increasing cost-benefit ratio.
The cost-benefit ratio of individual Measures implemented on the cost-curve, calculated by differences in the incremental cost and emission reductions, need not increase continuously from the Baseline condition. This is because the cost-benefit ratio of a Measure is affected by the implementation of other Measures at downstream Emissions nodes. For example, the cost-benefit ratio of a lagoon cover Measure implemented at the slurry Storage Stage will be high at first because the TAN conserved will be lost at the Spreading Stage. An incorporation Measure implemented at the Spreading Stage is likely to have a greater benefit per unit cost, as there are no further losses of TAN downstream. Once the incorporation Measure has been implemented, a greater proportion of the TAN conserved at the Storage Stage will be permanently retained and the benefit of the lagoon cover Measure significantly increased. This is an important consequence of the step approach to calculating the cost-curve.
The NARSES Engine provides an alternative method of setting the order of Measure implementation. Where Measures are applied at Nodes or Links that share the same Stage name, they can be implemented in increasing order of a Priority Index based on, for example, cost, efficiency or a user ranking. This over-rides the cost-benefit order of implementation. The method is used when the New curve type option is selected from the Model Attributes tab (Figure 4). The index used is determined by a selection from the Priority type option list. The cost-benefit ratio is used as normal to determine which Measure to implement from the list of prioritised Measures for each Stage name in the Model Graph.
3. NARSES Model Manager
The NARSES Model Manager is a graphical user interface for the interactive design of the NARSES Model Graph and calculation of TAN emissions and the cost-curve based on default values. The NARSES Model Manager is accessed from the NARSES menu bar by selecting File(New(Model or File(Open(Model to open an existing NARSES Model Graph for editing.
The Model Manager interface has three distinct display areas (Figure 5). The Graph Display on the right shows the Node and Link tree representation of the TAN Flow for each Sector in the model on a separate tab. The Model Attributes tab at the top left displays the general attributes of the NARSES model and the active Sector or selected Node on the Graph Display. The Graph Attributes tab at the bottom left displays the attributes of individual Nodes or Links selected on the Graph Display. A toolbar displays buttons that edit the features of the Model Graph and execute the cost-curve calculation (Figure 6). Several of the edit features are also accessible via menu options. Potential remediation Measures can be added, edited or removed from the Model Graph via the Edit Measures Dialog (Section 3.1.6).
3.1. Control Summary
3.1.1. Graph Display
The Graph Display shows a Node and Link tree representation of the TAN Flow for each Sector in the model on a separate tab. The Sector names are displayed on the tabs along with a graphic tick or cross, indicating whether the sector will be included in the cost-curve calculations. Click on the names to change between sector views and Double-Click on the icon to change a Sector status. Each Node on the Graph Display is shown as an icon unique to the Node type, next to the Node name and beneath an image which can be selected from a library accessible from the NARSES menu bar by Model Manager(Node(Select Image. This will display the Image Selection Dialog (Figure 7).
A Node is selected by a single Click with the mouse on the icon or image. A selected Node will display selection handles (Figure 8). A Node can be repositioned with the mouse by a Click and Drag process. The relative positions of Nodes are saved with the model description so it is worthwhile designing a graph layout that is easy to read. A Node is added by a Click and Drag process on an empty area of the Graph Display. The type of Node added depends on current selection from the Node Type button list (see below). There are seven basic types of Node, as described in Section 2.2.1., and each has a unique icon and recommended three letter acronym to be used as part of the name (Figure 9).
Each Link on the Graph Display is shown as a blue arrow connecting two Nodes, with an icon and the Link name centred on the arrow. A Link is selected by a single Click with the mouse on the icon or name. A selected Link will display selection handles. A Link is added by first selecting the source or from Node to show the selection handle at the centre of the Node image. Click on this handle and Drag the mouse across the Graph Display to the destination or to Node. A line is drawn that follows the mouse movements. Release the mouse button over the to Node and a connecting Link will be added between the two Nodes. Certain restrictions apply: a Node cannot be directly linked to itself; cyclic links are not permitted; and a Source Node type cannot be the destination of any Link.
A Measure is represented on the Graph Display by an icon and name, connected to the relevant Node or Link by a red arrow (Figure 10). The icon displays either a graphic tick or cross, indicating whether the Measure is to be included in the cost-curve calculations. A Measure is selected by a single Click with the mouse on the icon or name. A selected Measure will display selection handles. A Double-Click on the icon will toggle the Measure status. Measures can only be added to the Model Graph via the Edit Measures Dialog (Section 3.1.6).
All selected Nodes, Links or Measures can be removed from the Model Graph by a single Click on the Delete button (Section 3.1.4). Any Links or Measures connected to a deleted Node will be automatically removed.
3.1.2. Model Attributes Tab
The Model Attributes tab has three sub-tabs for model, sector and graph attributes (Figure 4). The model sub-tab displays the editable model name and description and the methods of cost-curve calculation and measure priority assignment. The latter are selected from a drop-down list of restricted options (Section 2). The sector sub-tab displays the editable name and description of the sector that is currently shown on the Graph Display. Edits made to a Sector name must be unique within the Model Graph.
The graph sub-tab displays the name, description, type and Stage of the Node or Link currently selected on the Graph Display. The Node or Link type is not editable. Edits made to a Node name must be unique within the Sector. The Stage name assigned to a Node is not used in the calculation of a cost-curve but can be used to group and summarise emissions.
The sector sub-tab is enabled only when one or more sectors are added to the Model Graph, and the graph sub-tab is enabled only when a Node or Link is selected on the Graph Display.
3.1.3. Graph Attributes Tab
The Graph Attributes tab displays the monthly values assigned to Nodes or Links to represent TAN Flow across the Model Graph. The tab is enabled only when a Node or Link is selected on the Graph Display. Depending on the type of Node or Link selected, the tab displays one or more sub-tabs. For a Source Node (Section 2.2.1.), the tab displays sub-tabs for nitrogen, animals and volume (Figure 11). The nitrogen tab lists monthly total quantities (kg) of TAN generated by the livestock that the node represents. The animals tab lists the animal numbers present each month that are responsible for generating the TAN, and the volume tab lists the total volume (m3 or tonnes) of excreta generated by the animals each month. The value for each month is editable. A single Click on any row will highlight the value for a month and allow editing of the cell contents. An ellipsis button is also displayed in the selected cell. A single Click on this cell button will display the Edit Formula Dialog (Section 3.1.7) to replace the constant value with a formula that uses location specific data from the NARSES Database. If a formula has been entered for a month, the cell displays the default value (for use in the absence of a database link) inside a function call expression. A Double-Click on any cell will copy the value for that month into every other month.
For any other type of Node (Section 2.2.1.), the tab displays a single sub-tab listing monthly Node values (Figure 12). The significance of the monthly values depends upon the type of Node. For an Export Node, for example, the values are the percentage of material and TAN that are exported out of the agricultural system for other uses, such as incineration. The monthly values are also editable. The legal range is dependent upon the Node type. Most are constrained to be in the range 0 to 100 percent.
For a Link, the tab displays a single sub-tab listing monthly Link values (Figure 13). The values are the percentage of material and Tan from the parent Node that are transferred across the link to the child Node. If a parent Node has only one Link descending from it, then the monthly values have no significance. For one or more descending Links, the monthly values control the proportioning of material and TAN. The monthly values are also editable and should be in the range 0 to 100. It is not necessary for the values in each month to sum to 100 percent across the descending Links from a Node as the NARSES Engine will automatically normalise the values. However, time spent in properly specifying the monthly values will make for a more readable Graph Display.
3.1.4. Button Toolbar
The toolbar displays buttons that edit the features of the Model Graph and execute the cost-curve calculation (Figure 6).
3.1.4.1. Save Model
Saves the current Model Graph to a file for later input to the NARSES Scenario Manager and calculation of a national cost-curve.
3.1.4.2. Add Sector
Adds a new Sector to the Model Graph. The new Sector is assigned a unique name.
3.1.4.3. Remove Sector
Removes the Sector currently shown on the Graph Display from the Model Graph.
3.1.4.4. Arrange Graph
Re-arranges the Nodes and Links on the Graph Display to better display the hierarchical relationships between source and destination Nodes.
3.1.4.5. Delete Object
Removes the currently selected Node, Link or Measure from the Graph Model.
3.1.4.6. Edit Measures
Displays the Edit Measures Dialog (Section 3.1.6) from which Measures can be added, edited and removed from the Model Graph.
3.1.4.7. Calculate Baseline
Calculates baseline emissions of TAN from all active Sectors in the Model Graph and displays the results in a Report Dialog (Section 3.1.8).
3.1.4.8. Calculate cost-curve
Calculates the optimal sequence of measure implementation to maximum emission reduction for minimum cost from all active Sectors in the Model Graph. The results are displayed in a Report Dialog (Section 3.1.8).
3.1.4.9. Edit Script
This feature is disabled in this release of the NARSES Engine.
3.1.4.10. Node Type List
Select the Node type to be added to the Model Graph by a Click and Drag across the Graph Display.
3.1.4.11. Zoom In
Magnify and reduce the visible area of the Graph Display.
3.1.4.12. Zoom Out
Increase the visible area of the Graph Display.
3.1.5. Menu Options
The Model Manager menu options provide facilities for adding and removing sectors from the Model Graph, accessing the Image Selection Dialog (Figure 7) and calculating emissions and the cost-curve. Menu options are divided into Sector, Node and Calculate sub-menus (Figure 14).
Sector(Add Sector
Adds a new Sector to the Model Graph. The new Sector is assigned a unique name.
Sector(Remove Sector
Removes the Sector currently shown on the Graph Display from the Model Graph.
Sector(Import Sector
Imports a Sector from a file into the current Model Graph. The imported Sector must not have the same name as any existing Sector in the Model Graph.
Sector(Export Sector
Saves the Sector currently shown on the Graph Display to a file.
Sector(Clear Sector
Removes all Nodes, Links and Measures from the Sector currently shown on the Graph Display.
Node(Select Image
Displays the Image Selection Dialog (Figure 7) to change the image associated with the currently selected Node on the Graph Display.
Calculate(Baseline
Calculates baseline emissions of TAN from all active Sectors in the Model Graph and displays the results in a Report Dialog (Section 3.1.8).
Calculate(Cost-curve
Calculates the optimal sequence of measure implementation to maximum emission reduction for minimum cost from all active Sectors in the Model Graph. The results are displayed in a Report Dialog (Section 3.1.8).
3.1.6. Edit Measures Dialog
The Edit Measures Dialog (Figure 15) displays a spreadsheet list of remediation Measures and their attributes for editing. Measures for each Sector are displayed on separate tabs with appropriate titles.
Select Measures by a single mouse Click on the appropriate spreadsheet row. The Measure attributes will be highlighted. Use the Delete button to remove the selected Measure. Use the Add button to add a new Measure to a Sector. This button will only be enabled if there are one or more Emission Nodes or Links in the Model Graph to which Measures can apply.
A single Click on any field will highlight the value and allow editing of the cell contents. Measure attributes must be in the legal range (Section 2). Click on the Active field to include or exclude a Measure from the calculation of a cost-curve. An ellipsis button is also displayed for the Measure efficiency, applicability and implementation attributes. A single Click on this cell button will display the Edit Formula Dialog (Section 3.1.7.) to replace the constant value with a formula that uses location specific data from the NARSES Database
The Library button is disabled in this release of the NARSES Engine.
Click on the Accept or Cancel buttons to confirm or deny edits made to the Measures and dismiss the dialog.
3.1.7. Edit Formula Dialog
The Edit Formula Dialog (Figure 16) displays a list of items in the NARSES Database above text boxes containing an editable formula and default value. The default value is used when it is not possible to parse the formula (including numerical errors such as a division by zero) and whenever a database link is unavailable.
The formula is interpreted by a VBScript parser and so can include simple flow control statements and declaration of temporary variables. The formula must include a line that assigns the result of the calculation to the application Result variable (Figure 16). The formula can include references to items in the NARSES Database. A Double Click on the spreadsheet list of database items will insert the database key for that item into the formula at the current cursor location.
Click on the Accept or Cancel buttons to confirm or deny edits made to the formula or default value and dismiss the dialog.
3.1.8. Model Report Dialog
The Model Report Dialog (Figure 17) is displayed after the calculation of baseline emissions or a cost-curve. Calculation results are displayed for each Sector on separate tabs with the appropriate title, and an integrated result for the whole Model Graph is displayed on the Model tab. The report is intended to be a summary of results. Detailed figures can be saved to a text file for later querying in Microsoft Access or Excel by selecting File(Save from the dialog menu.
The dialog is separated into three panes. The topmost pane lists the remediation Measures in reverse order of implementation (numbered) from the baseline conditions with the calculated total emissions and implementation cost. Individual Cost-Step records can be expanded to show monthly values by a single Click on the outline tree. Select a Cost-Step by a single mouse Click on the appropriate spreadsheet row. The Cost-Step attributes will be highlighted.
The middle pane lists Measures that have been implemented in a Sector at the selected Cost-Step. The percentage and total cost of implementation are listed. Individual Measure records can be expanded to show monthly values by a single Click on the outline tree.
The bottom pane lists emissions by Node within a Sector at the selected Cost-Step. Individual Node emission records can be expanded to show monthly values by a single Click on the outline tree.
3.2. NARSES UK Model
A NARSES Graph has been constructed that describes the agricultural system and replicates the sector emissions calculated by the spreadsheet version of the NARSES model.
Reference
Cowell DA, ApSimon HM, 1998. Cost-effective strategies for the abatement of ammonia emissions from European Agriculture. Atmospheric Environment 32(3), 573-580.
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