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Measurement and abatement of ammonia emissions from hard standings used by livestock - AM0111

Description
DEFRA is seeking baseline information on ammonia emissions from UK agriculture and the development of suitable methods for reducing such emissions. Project WA0516 demonstrated that hard standings represent a previously ignored and potentially significant source of ammonia emissions (45 kt NH3-N). However, further revision of the data in project AM0108 suggested that the overall emissions from this source may be smaller (22 kt NH3-N), although still significant. The estimate of total ammonia emission from hard standings is subject to several uncertainties, including limited knowledge of their frequency of use and stocking densities, and the fact that data are limited to only a limited number of farms. In this project we aim to address the latter uncertainty and measure ammonia emissions from the hard standing areas of a further 12 farms (5 dairy, 5 beef and 2 sheep). We will also conduct experiments on a yard area to which cattle have controlled access to establish the relationship between the quantity of urea deposited on hard standings and the ammonia emission, to investigate the effect of stocking density and to assess a number of potential abatement options including the use of urease inhibitors and improved yard cleaning methods. Selected abatement practices will be tested on farms and measurements made to both assess their effectiveness and practicality. The information gained from this project will be used to improve the UK ammonia emissions inventory (AM0113) as well as provide useful data for other models such as NARSES (AM0101).
Objective
Most emphasis within this project will be placed on improving current estimates of ammonia emission factors from hard standings used by livestock. However, it is important that potential abatement strategies are also investigated. Specific objectives are:

1. Provide more robust data for emission factor estimates
1.1 Conduct measurements of emission from hard standings of 5 dairy farms
1.2 Conduct measurements of emission from hard standings of 5 beef farms
1.3 Conduct measurements of emission from hard standings of 2 sheep farms
1.4 Revise estimates of hard standing areas and usage
1.5 Revise estimates of ammonia emission factors and annual total emission from hard standings used by livestock
2. Assess potential abatement techniques
2.1 Cleaning methods (scraping/washing)
2.2 Urease inhibitors
2.3 Area allowance per animal
3. Assess the impact on ammonia emissions and economics of implementing selected abatement strategies
Project Documents
• Final Report : Measurement and abatement of ammonia emissions from hard standings used by livestock   (460k)
Time-Scale and Cost
From: 2001

To: 2004

Cost: £308,490
Contractor / Funded Organisations
Institute of Grassland and Environment Research (IGER)
Keywords
Air Pollution              
Ammonia              
Environmental Protection              
Peer Review              
Pollution              
Sustainable Production              
Fields of Study
Environmental Protection - Agriculture